Antidiabetic Activity of Okra Fruit (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) Extract and Fractions in Two Conditions of Diabetic Rats
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) fruit is empirically used in type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. This research aims to know the antihyperglycemic activity of okra fruit extract and fractions in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced as well as in insulin resistance diabetic rats, the effect on pancreatic cells regeneration, and the effect on immunohistochemical expression of glucose transporter-4. This study used a group of 35 male Wistar rats for STZ-NA induced diabetic model and another group of 35 rats for insulin resistance diabetic model. Gliclazide (0.72mg/kg BW) and metformin (45mg/kg BW) were used as drug control in STZ-NA induced and insulin resistance diabetes, respectively. Okra fruit ethanol extract, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water fraction were orally administered with dose of 200; 107; 6 and 86mg/kg BW, respectively, for 28 days after diabetic condition was obtained. Blood glucose level was measured every week. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to evaluate the pancreatic cells regeneration, while immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of glucose transporter-4 in muscle membrane cells, at the end of the treatment. The results revealed that ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective in lowering blood glucose level in both condition of diabetes. Ethyl acetate fraction decreased the necrosis of pancreatic cells in STZ-NA induced diabetic rats and increased the expression of glucose transporter-4 in muscle cell of insulin resistance diabetic rats.
Aba PE and Asuzu IU. 2018. Mechanisms of actions of some bioactive anti-diabetic principles from phytochemicals of medicinal plants: A review. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 9(2): 85–96.
Ai J, Wang N, Yang M, Du ZM, Zhang YC and Yang BF. 2005. Development of Wistar rat model of insulin resistance. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 11(24): 3675–3679. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v11.i24.3675
Azmir J, Zaidul ISM, Rahman MM, Sharif KM, Mohamed A, et al. 2013. Techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials: A review. Journal of Food Engineering. 117(4): 426–436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.01.014
Banjarnahor SDS and Artanti N. 2014. Antioxidant properties of flavonoids. Medical Journal of Indonesia. 23(4): 239–244. https://doi.org/10.13181/mji.v23i4.1015
Bawa SH and Badrie N. 2016. Nutrient profile, bioactive components, and functional properties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Fruits, Vegetables, and Herbs: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802972-5.00018-4
Bortey HM and Dzomeku BM. 2016. Fruit and seed quality of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] as influenced by harvesting stage and drying method. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 50(4): 330–334. https://doi.org/10.18805/ijare.v50i4.11253
Bryant NJ, Govers R and James DE. 2002. Regulated transport of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 3(4): 267–277. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm782
Chen L, Chen R, Wang H and Liang F. 2015. Mechanisms Linking Inflammation to Insulin Resistance. International Journal of Endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/508409
Dubey P and Mishra S. 2017. A review on: Diabetes and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2353(53): 23–26.
Fan S, Zhang Y, Sun Q, Yu L, Li M, Zheng B, et al. 2014. Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 25(7): 702–709. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.02.010
Khatun H, Rahman A, Biswas M and Islam AU. 2011. Water-soluble Fraction of Abelmoschus esculentus L Interacts with Glucose and Metformin Hydrochloride and Alters Their Absorption Kinetics after Coadministration in Rats . ISRN Pharmaceutics : 1–5. https://doi.org/10.5402/2011/260537
Leyva-lópez N, Gutierrez-grijalva EP, Ambriz-perez DL and Heredia JB. 2016. Flavonoids as Cytokine Modulators : A Possible Therapy for Inflammation-Related Diseases. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17060921
Mamikutty N, Thent ZC, Sapri SR, Sahruddin NN, Mohd Yusof MR and Suhaimi F. 2014. The establishment of metabolic syndrome model by induction of fructose drinking water in male Wistar rats. BioMed Research International. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/263897
Nazaruk J and Borzym-Kluczyk M. 2015. The role of triterpenes in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Phytochemistry Reviews, 14(4): 675–690. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-014-9369-x
Nurdiana S, Goh YM, Ahmad H, Dom SM, Syimal’ain AN, et al. 2017. Changes in pancreatic histology, insulin secretion and oxidative status in diabetic rats following treatment with Ficus deltoidea and vitexin. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17(1):1–17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1762-8
Olokoba AB, Obateru OA and Olokoba LB. 2012. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends. Oman Medical Journal, 27(4): 269–273. https://doi.org/10. 5001/omj.2012.68
Ramachandran S, Sandeep VS, Srinivas NK and Dhanaraju MD. 2010. Anti-diabetic activity of Abelmoschus esculentus Linn. on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Research & Reviews in BioSciences, 4(3): 121–123.
Sabitha V, Ramachandran S, Naveen KR and Panneerselvam K. 2012. Investigation of in vivo antioxidant property of Abelmoschus esculentus (L) moench. fruit seed and peel powders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 3(4):188–193. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-9476.104432
Szkudelski T. 2012. Experimental Biology and Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1258/ebm.2012.011372
Thanakosai W and Phuwapraisirisan P. 2013. First Identification of ?-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Seeds. Natural Product Communications, 8(8): 1085–1088. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1300800813
Tomoda M, Shimizu N, Gonda R, Kanari M, Yamada H and Hikino H. 1989. Anticomplementary and hypoglycemic activity of Okra and Hibiscus mucilages. Carbohydrate Research, 190: 323–328.
Verma S, Gupta M, Popli H and Aggarwal G. 2018. Diabetes mellitus treatment using herbal drugs. International Journal of Phytomedicine, 10(1):01. https://doi.org/10.5138/09750185.2181
Zhang M, Lv XY, Li J, Xu ZG and Chen L. 2008. The characterization of high-fat diet and multiple low-dose streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetes rat model. Experimental Diabetes Research. https://doi.org/10.1155/2008/704045
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Indonesian J Pharm indexed by:View My Stats