PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF GYMNEMIC ACID EXTRACTS FROM BIG AND SMALL LEAF VARIETIES OF Gymnema Sylvestre R.Br
Phytochemical and hypoglycemic effects of two varieties of Gymnema sylvestre were studied. The leaves of Big-leaf (MCL) and the small-leaf (ZMGL) varieties were grown in Uka Tarsadia University, Bardoli, India. Water, ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether, haxane and chloroform were used for phytochemical extraction from the dried leaves. Gymnemic acid was extracted and purified from the two varieties by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Four groups of matured whisker rats (six per group) were induced with high-glucose level. Three groups were treated with standard drug Glibenclamide (5mg/kg), gymnemic acid extracts from MCL and ZMDL respectively while the fourth group served as experimental control. Hypoglycemic activities of extracts were evaluated using animals’ blood sample. Result showed water and methanol are best solvents for phytochemical extraction from the plant and the yield is higher in ZMGL than MCL. Also, gymnemic acid yield varied. From the results, hypoglycemic activities from the animals’ blood revealed that treatments from both MCL and ZMGL are not significantly different from standard drug Glibenclamide. The study concluded that water or methanol is appropriate solvent for phytochemical extraction from G. sylvestre leaves and extract from both lines of the plant could be utilized to reduce blood glucose level
Keywords: phytochemical extraction, extraction solvents, gymnemic acid, hypoglycemic effects
Full Text:PDF (59-65)
Ajaiyeoba EO., 2000. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Gynandropsis gynandra and Buchholzia coriaceae extracts. Af. J. Biom. Res.. 3(3): 161–165
Anki S., Sharma C., Aneja KR., Pahwa R., 2010. Gymnema sylvestre (Gurmar): A review. Der Pharmacia Letter, 2(1): 275-284.
Babu V., Gangadevi T., Subramaniam A., 2000. Antihyperglycemic activity of Cassia kleinii leaf extract in glucose fed normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 34: 409-415.
Bradford MM., 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of proteins utilizing protein-dye binding. Anal of Biochemistry. 70: 248–254
Cretti A., Brunato B., Zenti MG., Tosi F., Muggeo M., Bonora E., Bonadonna RC., 2000. A novel tool to assess ß-cell function during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Diabetes. 49 (Suppl. 1): A89.
Grijesh, K.M., Pankaj, K.M. and Veeru P. (2009). Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Glob. J.Biotechnol. Biochem, 4 (1): 37-42.
Gunjan M., Ravindran M., Jana, GK., 2011. A review on some potential traditional phytomedicine with antidiabetic properties. Int. J. .Phyto.. 3: 448-458.
Gupta AK., 2003. Quality standards of Indian Medicinal Plants. E-journal of Ind. Med., 1(XVI): 262-265
Gzella AG., Dudek-Makuch M., Matławska I., 2012. DPPH Radical scavenging activity and phenolic compound content in different leaf extracts from selected Blackberry species. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica. 54(2): 32–38.
Hedge JE., Hofreiter BT., 1962. Carbohydrate Chemistry, (17 edn). Whistler RL, Miller IN. (eds) Academic Press: New York pp, 148-157.
Hellekant G., Ninomiya Y., Danilova V., 1998. Taste in chimpanzees. III: Labeled-line coding in sweet taste. Physiology and Behavior. 65(2): 191–200.
Hooper D., 1987. Isolation and antiviral activity of gymnemic acid. Pharm. Jour. Trans. 17: 867-868.
Indian Council of Medical Research, (ICMR). 2013. Database on ethnomedicinal plants of Western Ghats. http://www.icmr.nic.in/pinstitute/belgaum/html/Research.html access Wed 18th Feb, 2014 19:24.
Joseph B., Jini D., 2010. Insight into the hypoglycemic effect of traditional Indian herbs used in the treatment of diabetes. Res. J. Med. Plant. 5(4): 352-376
Kanetkar PV., Laddha KS., Kamat MY., 2004. Gymnemic acids: a molecular perspective of its action on carbohydrate metabolism. Poster presented at the 16th icfost meeting organized by cftri and dfrl. Mysore, India.
Khandelval KR., 2008. Practical Pharmacognosy. Pragati Books Pvt. Ltd. India. pp 157-158.
Kokate A., 1999. Phytochemical Methods. Phototherapy. 78:126-129
Krishna RB., Sujitha R., Reddy R., Harika J., Swapna D., Jagadeeswara KR., 2012. An easy and simple method of isolation and purification of genomic DNA from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre – an anti-diabetic plant. Int. J.Life Scie. Pharm Res. 2(1): 15-20
Liu HM., Kiuchi F., Tsuda Y., 1992. Isolation and structure elucidation of Gymnemic acids; antisweet principles of Gymnema sylvestre. Chem. Pharm. 40: 1366–1375.
Mitra SK., Gopumadhavan S., Muralidhar TS., Anturlikar SD., Sujatha MB., 1995 . Effect of D-400 herbomineral preparation on lipid profile glycated haemoglobin and glucose tolerance in streptocine induced diabetes in rats. Ind J Exp Bio. 33:798-800.
Mukherjee PK., 2002. Quality control of herbal drugs: An approach to evaluation of botanicals. Business Horizons, New Delhi, Pp.362
Nakamura Y., Tsumura Y., Tonogai Y., Shibata T., 1997. Contents of gymnemic acid in health foods using Gymnema sylvestre. J.Food Hygiene Society Japan. 38:178-184.
Obdoni BO., Ochuko PO., 2001. Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some homostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Glob J Pure and Applied Sciences. 8: 203-208.
Ogawa Y., Sekita K., Umemura T., Saito M., Ono A., Kawasaki Y., Uchida O., Matsushima Y., Inoue T., Kanno J., 2004. Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: A 52-Week dietary toxicity study in whisker rats. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi, 45(1): 8-18.
Puratchimani V., Jha, S., 2004. HPTLC standardization of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. Using gymnestrogenin as references. Ind. J.Pharm. Scie. 66(2): 242-244
Sofowra A., 1993. Med. plants traditional medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 191-289.
Trease GE., Evans WC., 2005. Pharmacognosy. (10th edn). Harbcourt Publishers. WB Saunders Company Ltd. New York. pp 95-96.
Yadav RNS., Agarwal M., 2011. Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants J.Phytology. 3(12):10-14.
Ye WC., Zhang Q., Liu X., Che C., Zhao S., 2000. Oleanane saponins from Gymnema sylvestre Phytochemistry, 53: 893-899.
Zohary D., Hopf M., Weisse E., 2000. Domestication of plants in the old world, (4th edn). Oxford University Press: NY, pp 264
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2017 INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Indonesian J Pharm indexed by:View My Stats