Uttam Budhathoki, Kshitij Gartoulla, Shailendra Shakya


This study was carried out to develop matrix based transdermal patches containing Atenolol. A 2 factors (HPMC (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose) K4M & PVP (Polyvinyl Pyrolidone) 3 level (23) factorial design was done using Design Expert® which gave 13 experiments. The patches were prepared by Solvent casting method. Propylene glycol (3%) and Tween 80 (6%) were used as plasticizer and permeation enhancer respectively. Physicochemical characteristics and In-Vitro permeation study of formulated transdermal patches were carried out. Contour plot suggested 770 mg of PVP and 265 mg of HPMC K4M in Optimized formulation. 


Atenolol; Transdermal Patches; In-Vitro permeation study; permeation enhancer; HPMC; PVP

Full Text:



Ibrahim SA., 2014. Spray-on transdermal drug delivery system. Expert opin Drug Deliv. 17 : 1-11.

Sun YM., Huang JJ., Lin FC., Lai JY., 1997. Composite poly (2- hydroxyethyl Methacrylate) membranes as rate-controlling barriers for transdermal applications. Biomaterial. 18(7) : 527-533.

Ahmed A., Karki NK., Charde RM., Charde MS., 2011. Transdermal drug delivery systems:an overview. Int J of Biomed & Adv Res. 2(1) : 38-56.

Jhawat VC., Saini V., Kamboj S., Maggon N., 2013. Transdermal drug delivery systems: Approaches and Advancements in Drug Absorption through skin. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 20(1) : 47-56.

Saroha K., Yadav B., Sharma B., 2011. Transdermal patch: a discrete dosage form, Int J Curr Pharm Res. 3(3) : 98-108.

Jhawat VC., Saini V., Kamboj S., Maggon N., 2013. Transdermal drug delivery systems: approaches and advancements in drug absorption through skin. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 20(1) : 47-56.

Premjeet S., Bilandi A., Sahil K., Akanksha M., 2011 Transdermal drug delivery system (patches), applications in present scenario: Int J Res Pharm Chem. 1(4) : 1139-1151.

Chein YW., 1987. Transdermal controlled systemic medication. Marcel Dekkar Inc, New York, USA. pp. 159-176.

Aulton ME., 2002. Pharmaceutics: The science of dosage form design. 2nd ed. Churchill Livingston, London, UK. pp. 499-533.

Sharma N, Parashar B., Sharma S., Mahajan U., 2012. Blooming pharma industry with transdermal drug delivery system, Indo Global J Pharm Sci. 2(3) : 262-278.

Muller B., Kasper M., Surber C., Imanidis G., 2003. Permeation, metabolism and site of action concentration of nicotinic acid derivatives in human skin: correllation with topical pharmacological effect. Eur J Pharm Sci. 20(2) : 181-195.

Finnin BC., Morgan TM., 1999. Transdermal penetration enhancers: applications, limitations, and potential. J Pharm Sci, 88(10) : 955–958.

Funke AP., Schiller R., Motzkus HW., Günther C., Müller RH., Lipp R., 2002. Transdermal delivery of highly lipophilic drugs: In vitro fluxes of antiestrogens, permeation enhancers and solvents from liquid formulations. Pharm Res. 19(5) : 661-668.

Taylor LJ., Lee RS., Long M., Rawlings AV., Tubek J., Whitehead L., Moss GP., 2002. Effect of occlusion on the percutaneous penetration of linoleic acid and glycerol. Int J Pharm. 249(1-2) : 157-164.

Ghosh B., Reddy LH., 2001. Effect of physicochemical parameters on skin permeability of antihypertensive. Indian J Exp Biol. 39(7) : 710-714.

Jain GK., Kaul JL., Agrawal SS., 1993. In vitro transdermal delivery of atenolol using mouse and guinea pig. Indian J Exp Biol, 31 (8): 691-693.

Bangale GS., Rathinaraj BS., Rajesh KS., Shinde GV., Umalkar DG., Rajveer CH., Kumaraswamy D., Panicker PS., 2010. Design and evaluation of transdermal films of Atenolol. J Chem Pharm Res, 2010. 2(3) : 593-604.

Gupta JRD., Irchhiaya R., Garud N., Tripathi P., Dubey P., Patel JR., 2009. Formulation and evaluation of matrix type transdermal patches of glibenclamide. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res. 1(1): 46-50.

Darwhekar G., Jain DK., Patidar VK., 2011. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system of clopidogrel bisulphate. Asian J Pharm life Sci. 1(3) : 269-278.

De PK., Paul J., Dey SK., Dinda SC., Rakshit S., 2011. Formulation, physic-chemical characterization and release kinetic study of antihypertensive transdermal patches. Der Pharm Sin. 2(5) : 98-109.

Patel HV., Bhatt J., Patel NK., 2013. Design and development of transdermal drug delivery for anti-hypertensive drug using different polymeric system. Int J Pharm Chem Sci. 2(2) : 942-949.

Ramesh Y., Anjana AKM., Manjula DB., Sankeerthana K., Sri LP., Vasanthi A., 2015. Formulation and evaluation of atenolol transdermal patches. Creative J Pharm Res. 1(2) : 55-65.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian J Pharm indexed by:

analytics View My Stats