Amalia Widyaninggar, Triwahyudi ., Kuwat Triyana, Abdul Rohman


Gelatin  used  for  capsule  shells  can  be  derived  from porcine  origin.  Some  religion  like  Islam  prohibited  their followers  to  consume  any  products  containing  porcine derivatives  including  porcine  gelatin  in  the  products. Consequently,  some  rapid  and  reliable  techniques  are continuously  developed  for  detection  of  porcine  gelatin  in some pharmaceutical products like  capsule shells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to use  amino acid profile  in  combination  with  chemometrics  of  principal component  analysis  for  detection  and  classification  between gelatin in capsule derived from porcine and bovine. Based on score  plot  of  first  principal  components  (PC1)  and  second principal  components  (PC2),  porcine  and  bovine  gelatins  in capsule could be apparently distinguished.

Key  words:  bovine  gelatin;  porcine  gelatin;  amino  acid  profile; principal component analysis

Full Text:



Boran, G., J. and M. Regenstein, 2010, Fish Gelatin, In: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Taylor, S. (Ed.) Vol. 60, Elsevier Academic Press, New York

Cai, H., X. Gu, M.S. Scanlan, D.H. Ramatlapeng and C.R. Lively, 2012, Realtime PCR assays for detection and quantitation of porcine and bovine DNA in gelatin mixtures and gelatin capsules, J.

Food Compos. Anal., 25, 83-87.

Cserhati, T., 2010, Data evaluation in chromatography by principal component analysis. Biomed Chromatogr., 24: 20-28.

Demirhan, Y., P. Ulca and H.Z. Senyuva, 2012, Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication, Meat Sci., 90, 686-689.

GMIA, 2012. Gelatin Handbook, USA: Gelatin Manufacturers Institute of America Hashim, D.M., Y.B.C. Man, R. Norakasha, M. Shuhaimi, Y. Salmah and Z.A. Syahariza, 2010, Potential use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatins, Food Chem., 118, 856-860.

Hidaka, S. and S.Y. Liu, 2003, Effects of gelatins on calcium phosphate precipitation: A possible application for distinguishing bovine bone gelatin from porcine skin gelatin, J. Food Compos. Anal., 16, 477-483.

Karim, A.A. and R. Bhat, 2008, Gelatin alternatives for the food industry: Recent developments, challenges and prospects, Trends Food Sci.. Technol., 19, 644-656.

Karim, A.A. and R. Bhat, 2009, Fish gelatin: Properties, challenges and prospects as an alternative to mammalian gelatins, Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 563-576.

Marina, A.M., Y.B. Che Man and A. Ismail, 2010, Use of the SAW sensor electronic nose for detecting the adulteration of virgin coconut oil with RBD palm kernel olein, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 87, 263-270.

Miller, J.N. and J.C. Miller, 2005, Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry. 5th Edn., Pearson/Prentice Hall, Harlow

Riaz, M.N. and M.M. Chaudry, 2004, Halal food production, CRC Press, USA

Nemati, M., M.R. Oveisi, H. Abdollahi and O. Sabzevari, 2004, Differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatins using principal component analysis, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 34, 485-492.

Nhari, R.M.H.R., A. Ismail and Y.B. Che Man, 2012, Analytical methods for gelatin differentiation from bovine and porcine origins and food products, J. Food Sci., 71, R42-R46.

Rohman, A., K. Triyana, Sismindari and Y. Erwanto, 2012, Differentiation of lard and other animal fats based on triacylglycerols composition and principal component analysis, Int. Food Res. J., 19, 475-479.

Sakaguchi, M., T. Nakayama and S. Inouye, 1996, Food allergy to gelatin in children with systemic immediate-type reactions, including anaphylaxis, to vaccines, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 98, 1058-1061.

Schrieber, R. and H. Gareis, 2007, Gelatine Handbook: Theory and Industrial Practice, Wiley-VCH, Germany.

Snyder et al., 1987, Practical HPLC Method Development 2nd Edition, Wiley Interscience, New York

Venien, A. and D. Levieux, 2005, Differentiation of gelatins using polyclonal antibodies raised against tyrosylated bovine and porcine gelatins, J. Immunoassay Immunochem., 26, 215-229.

Zhang, G.F., T. Liu, Q. Wang, J.D. Lei, G.H. Ma and Z.G. Su, 2008, Identification of marker peptides in digested gelatins by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, Chin. J. Anal. Chem., 36, 1499-1504.

Zhang, G.F., T. Liu, Q. Wang, L. Chen and J. Lei et al., 2009, Mass spectrometric detection of marker peptides in tryptic digests of gelatin: A new method to differentiate between bovine and porcine gelatin, Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 2001-2007.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp104-109


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian J Pharm indexed by:


analytics View My Stats