Arindam Paul, Umang Gajjar, Jignasa Donga


Aconite (Aconitum napellus Linn.) commonly known as atis is a poisonous plant used extensively as antihypertensive, antipyretic, analgesic and antirheumatic. Ayurveda recommended the administration of aconite roots only after purification, i.e., boiling roots in cow’s urine (Gomutra). In the present study an attempt was made to compare the pro-arrhythmic and antihypertensive effects of powdered aconite root purified by shodhana process with that of unpurified form of aconite roots in order to provide scientific support of the claim in ayurvedic texts that purification of aconite root by shodhana process retains its antihypertensive activity and is devoid of pro-arrhythmic activity. Aconite root treatment in both forms purified and unpurified) caused significant reduction in BP when compared with diseased control group (P<0.05). The unpurified aconite root group showed significant increase in heart rate, increase in QRS complex time and increase in QT interval, however these parameters were statistically insignificant in purified aconite root treated group. The PRA, SC and BUN levels was significantly decreased in aconite root treatment groups. The probable mechanism of antihypertensive activity of aconite root can be attributed to decrease in plasma renin activity, decrease in oxidative stress and increase in NO levels.

Key words: Aconite, shodhana process, antihypertensive, proarrhythmic

Full Text:



Aebi H.E., 1984, Oxido reductases acting on groups other than CHOH: Catalase. In: Colowiek, S.P., Kaplan, N.O., Packer, L., (Ed.), Methods in Enzymology, Academic Press, London, pp. 121-125.

Bukan N., Sqancak B., Yavuz O., Koca C., Tutkun F., Ozcelikay AT., and Atlan N., 2003, Lipid peroxidation and scavenging enzyme levels in the liver of streptozotocin-indiced diabetic rats. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys., 40, 447-450.

Chan TY., 2009, Aconite poisoning, Clin. Toxicol., 47, 279-285.

Dylan EB., and Qingping F., 2011, Protective role of nitric oxide against cardiac arrhythmia an update, The Open Nitric Oxide J., 3, 138-47.

Godkar PB., and Godkar, D.P., 2009, Chemical tests in kidney disease. In: Textbook of Medical Laboratory Technology, 2ed., Bhalani Publishing House, Mumbai, India, pp. 233-250.

Goldblatt H., Lynch J., Hanazal RF., and Summerville WW., 1934, Studies on experimental hypertension: The production of persistent elevation of systolic blood pressure by means of renal

ischemia. J. Exp. Med., 9, 347-379.

Kamble R., Sathaye S., and Shah DP., 2008, Evaluation of antispasmodic activity of different Shodhit guggal using different shodhan process. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 70, 368-372.

Kaplan LA., and Pesce AJ., 1996, Clinical Chemistry. Theory, analysis and correlation. 3ed., St. Louis, USA: The CV Mosby Company, pp. 499.

Kotrly KJ., Kotter GS., Mortara D., and Kampire JP., 1984, Intraoperative detection of myocardial ischemia with an ST segment trend monitoring system, Anesth. Analg.,63, 343-345.

Lepoivre M., and Chenais B., 1990, Alterations of ribonucleotide reductase activity following induction of the nitrite- generating pathway in adenocarcinoma cells. J. Biol. Chem., 265, 14143 14149

McIntyre, M., Bohr, D.F., 1999, Some role of superoxide anion. J. Hypertension, 34, 539545.

Medhava A., and Mishra G., 1999, Ayurveda Prakasha, Shlok-108, Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, pp. 500.

Moran MS., Depierre JW., Mannervik, B., 1979, Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., pp. 582-67.

Nandi A., and Chatterjee IB., 1988, Assay of superoxide dismutase activity in animal tissues. J. Biosci., 13, 305-315.

Ohkawa H., Ohishi N., and Yagi K., 1979, Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem., 95, 351-358.

Rastogi S., 2011., A review of aconite (Vatsanabha) usage in Ayurvedic formulations: traditional views and their references. Spatula DD, 1, 233-244.

Rastogi S., and Ranjana SRH., 2007, Adverse effects of Ayurvedic drugs: an overview of causes and possibilities in reference to a case of Vatsanabha (Aconite) overdosing. Int. J Risk Safety Med., 19, 117-125.

Sarkar PK., Prajapati PK., 2011, Dispense with ayurvedic samskara: shodhana of aconite, Indian Drugs, 48, 31-44.

Sharma P., 2001, Dravyagna Vijnana, Volume 2, Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, pp. 211-3

Singh LB., Bose R., Singh SP., 1981, Effect of sodhana of aconite on its pharmacological action, Indian J. Pharmacol., 13, 123-124.

Singh RS., Singh LB., Bose R., and Sen SP., 1981, Experimental studies on sodhana of aconite, Ancient Sci.Life, 1, 106-109.

Singh S., Fadnis PP., and Sharma BK., 1986, Aconite poisoning. J. Assoc. Physicians India, 34, 825-826.

Thorat S., and Dahanukar S., 1999, Can we dispense with Ayurvedic samskara? J. Postgrad. Med., 37, 157-159.

Toshiaki M., Keita K., and Hajime M., 2009, Processed Aconite Root Prevents ColdStress-Induced Hypothermia and Immuno-Suppression in Mice, Biol. Pharm. Bull., 32, 1741-1748.

Wang GT., Chung CC., Holzman TF., and Krafft GA.. 1993, A continuous flouroscence assay of renin activity, Anal. Biochem., 210, 351-359.

Yifu Li., and Danna Tu., 2010, Aconitine blocks HERG and KV1.5 potasium channels. J. Ethnopharmacol., 131, 187195.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14499/indonesianjpharm24iss1pp40-46


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian J Pharm indexed by:


analytics View My Stats